The Triads are one of many criminal organizations commonly found in Chinese communities. The name "triad" comes from the interpretation by the British of the symbols of the Hung Sun, a secret society opposed to the Manchu rulers during the 17th century China. The triangle symbol represents the relationship between Heaven, Earth, and Man.
It is a criminal organization whose membership dwarfs that of other criminal groups and has a geographical reach that surpasses that of any other criminal network. Whose power and wealth rivals that of the other major crime groups. Within China there are 2 Big Triads (the Red Dragons and the White Lotus). Across Southeast Asia there are 4 Big Triads (the Red Dragons, Smoke Circle, the Black Chrysanthemum, and the Hai San). Globally, there is only one Big Triad, the Red Dragons.
While the Triads are secret societies involved in organized crime, for the Awakened they are also magical initiation groups. Among the world's organized crime groups, the Triads are one of the most enlightened and progressive when it comes to women, ethnicity, and metahumans. At least in comparison to the Mafia, the Vory, and the Yakuza. They are also the criminal organization which is most likely to fight against oppression and help the freedom fighters. Being one of the most tech-savvy criminal organizations, they recently proved once again that they are quicker to adapt than their more conservative rivals (e.g. the Mafia) when the emergence of Technomancers came to light.
Origins of the TriadEdit
The Triads (Heaven and Earth Society) is the world's oldest criminal organization, almost 400 years old. During those centuries, numerous Triads were exterminated and numerous other Triads were created. Some of the Triads are centuries old (e.g. Red Dragon Association, the Hai San, and the White Lotus Society).
It's origins start with a monastery of Shaolin monks who did a favor for the 2nd Manchu emperor (Kangxi) of the Qing dynasty in 1674. The emperor or his advisers (depending on the source) repaid them by ordering the extermination of the Shaolin monks. The Manchu soldiers destroyed the temple and massacred the monks, except for five who survived. After escaping, the five Shaolin survivors devoted themselves to overthrowing the Qing dynasty and established five anti-Qing groups which evolved into the Triads.
Evolution of the TriadEdit
Unfortunately for their cause, the Triads were unsuccessful in overthrowing the Manchus and the Qing dynasty ruled till 1912. By then the Triads had become an inseparable part of Chinese culture. Rebellions need to be morally flexible, get covert funding, and maintain secrecy to survive. Which incidentally are the same qualities a successful criminal organization needs. Since the rebels had lived as outlaws so long it was easy to make the transition into becoming full fledged criminals.
The Republic of China which succeeded Imperial China, encountered challenges that made it difficult to establish itself successfully, among them warlords. In these chaotic times, the Triads were able to take advantage of such opportunities and their membership exploded while profits skyrocketed. Then disaster struck in 1949, as the Communist Party seized power and cracked down on the Triads.
Many of the Triads relocated to Hong Kong, and those who stayed in the People's Republic of China were forced to keep an extremely low-profile which caused membership to plunge and profits to crash for the mainland Triads. Meanwhile the Triads in Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Macao thrived as they virtually established monopolies over different legal and illegal business sectors and industries. The Communist government would crush many of the smaller groups, but they were never able to eliminate the Triads as a whole.
Dawn of the Sixth WorldEdit
After the collapse of the Chinese government and the fragmentation of China, the Triads made a lot of money selling food, weapons, tech, and whatever else was needed to the warlords and the desperate people who lived under their rule. The profits were used to build up their criminal empires and for some of them, to expand outside of China. Under the direction of the dragon Lung, the Red Dragons became the most ambitious and expanded throughout the Pacific Rim.
Heaven and Earth SocietyEdit
The Heaven and Earth Society is the world's most flexible criminal society. It is this flexibility which has given them their longevity. As the world changes, the Triads have kept up with the times. By creating a culture of influence peddling and corruption, they became an integral part of Chinese culture and therefore the Triads as a whole cannot be eliminated.
The Triads have a viral method of propagation, making it easy for the Triads to spread rapidly to new territories. While the Mafia may have hundreds or a thousands in a city, the Triads are likely to have far more.
Major Triads: 38
Of all the world's criminal syndicates and cartels, the Triads are possibly the most ruthless of them all. The influence of the Triads is widely felt, they have a long established tradition, and their crimes can be particularly savage. Triads are heavily reliant on magic, standing out from other crime syndicates in their use of mystical forces. It is rumored that the supreme leader of the Triads is the great eastern dragon Lung himself.
Since they lack a central leadership, conflict resolution within the Triads are often bloody and brutal. Yet, they are capable of considerable finesse and restraint if the situation calls for it. That same lack of central control, makes the Triads more flexible in adapting to-and taking over-new territories. The specialty of the Triads is Awakened drugs, as they are very efficient at finding, testing, and preparing the drugs with the best street value.
The level of organization among the Triads varies greatly, from loosely organized associations (e.g. the 289's) to highly structured groups (e.g the Red Dragon Association). Members are given numerical codes based on Chinese numerology to identify their rank.
Triads recruit through both relatives and active street gangs. Among the Chinese diaspora they also recruit from the Tongs. Modern Triads are created by absorbing smaller Chinese gangs. All members of a Triad use centuries-old Triad hand signals, take the loyalty oaths, and speak in the numbered code. When it comes to the Triad leaders (Dragonheads), most of the Shan Chu lead public lives as businessmen.
The Triads unlike the Yakuza prefer secrecy and keeping a low profile when possible. Therefore unlike a Yakuza oyabun, the Shan Chu embraces a cover of humility. Where a Yakuza boss will sit on the board of an international corporation, the most powerful Triad dragonheads publicly run a restaurant or small business by day. Which leads them to be underestimated by those unfamiliar with the Triads.
- The leader of the Triad is the Shan Chu (Lodge Master - 489) who is a quasi-legitimate businessman whom has very little to no contact with the rank and file members.
- Below are the "483" ranked members. The Fu Shan Chu (Deputy Lodge Master, the top ranked 483) who handles the day-to-day management of the Triad. Next are two of equal rank; the Heung Chu (Incense Master) who is a mage and enforces tradition, and the Sin Fung (Guardian) who does the recruiting. Last are the Sheung Fa (Double Flower), whom the Triads send out to establish new branches of the Triad.
- At the next level are the officers of the Triad, starting with the Hung Kwan (Red Pole, 426) who is the military commander whose job is to coordinate the underling gangs. The Pak Tsz Sin (White Paper Fan, 415) is an accountant who is also in charge of Matrix activities. The Cho Hai (Grass Sandal, 425) is the public face of the Triad when it comes to gangs and businesses, who pays and collects the graft and bribes.
- Rank-n-file members are the Sze Kau (49), the enforcers of the Triad. Said enforcers may officially act as muscle or security. They may be in charge of running a business or safehouse. Perhaps they are hitmen who few know about.
Though membership in the Triads is usually mostly Chinese, they will also recruit non-Chinese Asians into the Triad and in North America they have been recruiting non-Asians. Therefore you will find among their numbers; Thai, Vietnamese, Malaysians, Filipinos, and sometimes even Anglos. The Han Chinese dominate the Triads, both in numbers and in leadership positions. They outnumber and usually outrank other ethnic Chinese, who outrank other Asians, who outrank Westerners. Globally, the Triads have become a cultural phenomena as there are now Triads that have not a single ethnically Chinese member in their ranks. Within some of the Triad syndicates there are secret societies whose membership consist only of Han Chinese. Known as the Sai Fan, it has a global membership and includes members from many Triads.
In the Triads, the Awakened members are almost always favored over the non-Awakened. Shan Chu (Dragonheads or Lodgemasters) are often either an adept or a magician, and in the larger Triads it's almost certain to be the case. When it comes to mages, the Triads attract magic practitioners at a higher rate than other crime syndicates. The Awakened usually advance up the ranks faster than mundanes and are usually members of secretive elite initiatory groups within the largest Triad syndicates.
When the secret about technomancers came out, the Triads once again got the leg up on their more conservative competition (e.g. Mafia). It was basically like a repeat of when magic first appeared. Rather than see them as a threat to their criminal operations, the Triads saw technomancers as valuable resources. They rushed to press gang technomancers into service, recruiting them into the Triads. One Triad (the 289's) has gone as far as to establish a technomancers guild within the syndicate.
Among the Triads, ethnicity is more important than the metatype. They make it their policy to approach metahumans who are disaffected because they can't join the Yakuza or Mafia and recruit them. Which gives them a lot of pull in the neighborhoods that are mostly metahuman. In Triads all around the world, Metahumans have been promoted into the upper tiers, holding positions of power.
The Triads accept women into their ranks, though men are usually valued more than the women. Therefore women are less likely to advance up the ranks but there are women who have climbed the ladder. Some women have even become Shan Chu (dragonhead or lodgemaster) of their Triad. A good number of magicians in the Triads are women, and since the Triads favor the Awakened it improves their odds of advancing up the ranks.
The Triads use magical oath rituals in their initiations which make the infiltration of Triads by law enforcement and interrogation of Triad suspects incredibly difficult. If a Triad member breaks the loyalty oath, violent physical reactions occur immediately often leading to death (e.g. bleeding from the eyes, pores, mouth, etc). Members value secrecy and being subtle. Many members keep their membership secret. It's thought that they use a secret language based on facial and hand gestures.
The Triads believe that man must be in harmony with both heaven and earth. Despite being a criminal organization they therefore also see themselves as a philanthropic organization. If there is a war, the Triads will enter the war zone and supply the refugees with the supplies they need though they will make sure they profit when doing so. When operating in a totalitarian state, the Triads will organize rebellions against the regime and make sure that they will be among those that benefit afterwards. They have many law-abiding SINers among their members. Triads see all their members are part of their family.
Triad as FamilyEdit
Triads are full-service crime syndicates when it comes to its members and their families. Each syndicate takes care of it's social events, accounting, financing, and so on. They provide martial arts and weapons training, medical coverage for its members, and benefits to the widows and wives of dead or jailed members.
Compared to the Yakuza soldier (kobun) or the Mafia soldier (wiseguy) who is generally loyal to his outfit because it's the smart move, Triad soldiers (Sze Kau) are fanatically devoted to their Triad. When it comes to the Yakuza or Mafia soldiers, most of them have a breaking point. In turn a Triad soldier will kill or die without question when commanded by their Dragonhead or one of his officers, fearing the retribution of the Triad more than death.
Triads were the first major crime syndicate to understand the changes happening to the world with the return of magic in 2011 AD. Because of their centuries-long mystical rituals and traditions, the Triads were able to adjust faster than rival groups and therefore became the first to use magic in their operations. Which gave them a stranglehold on the underworld in China and the Golden Triangle, which they continue to maintain till today. Apart from the fact that they greatly outnumber rival syndicates when it comes to manpower, it is magic which is the biggest edge that the Triads have over rival syndicates. This also applies to magical artifacts, ingredients, and so on. The Triads dominate the talislegging market which naturally gives their members access to the necessary items and ingredients of higher quality and in greater quantities compared to their rivals like the Mafia.
Like the Yakuza, when it comes to cyberware the Triads get their high quality cyberware brand new. Either they collect it from their connections in the corporations or they steal it when they have the chance. Giving them an advantage over the Mafia which relies on secondhand cyberware. When it comes to augmentation it depends on the Triad. In the case of the Triad soldiers, they are as likely to have implants and/or cyber (and lots of it), as the Yakuza kobun or Mafia wiseguy.
A few Triads will exclude anyone who is augmented from becoming a member. Some of the Triads are heavily into cyberware and implants, such as the 289's and one Triad in Seattle (the Eighty-Eights) whose soldiers all have beta-grade cyberware has gone as far as to exclude mysticism and focus only on having implants and cyberware. Rule of thumb in most Triads is if you want to advance far in the Triad it's best if you either have no cyberware or the implants are well-concealed. Though augmented members have advanced to the upper tiers.
When it comes to firepower, the Triads have it in spades. As they are among the biggest arms traffickers in the world and have ties to the warlords of China, the military dictatorship of Sichuan, and the armed forces of the Canton Confederation, the arsenal at their disposal is superior to that of the Mafia. It is a criminal network which outfits whole armies in China with the best weaponry and equipment that the Triads can buy, smuggle, or steal. The most powerful of the Triads, which is the Red Dragons, even has its own military unit and when necessary hires whole mercenary units.
The Triads neither like or dislike shadowrunners. To them shadowrunners are simply mercenaries to be used to the benefit of the organization. It's the experience of shadowrunners that Triad "Johnsons" are often older, superstitious, and talk in metaphors. The Triad will often team the shadowrunners with Triad muscle, whom either help by creating a diversion or acting as backup. If the shadowrunners cross the Triad, magic is always used to retaliate on the shadowrunners.
In China, the Triads have opium plantations in isolated areas throughout the country. They chemically tinker with the finished produce in laboratories which are more secure than the most important office in the Renraku Arcology. Which results in opium that is far more potent than before. Some of the warlords are "subsidizing" the opium farming in exchange for a slice of the profits, resulting in many of those opium fields being protected by the local military who are equipped with the best weapons and gear that the Triads can smuggle, buy, or steal.
When it comes to the Golden Triangle, they control the trade in both opiates and Awakened drugs grown in that region. From hundreds of thousands of acres, every year the Triads buy the crops. Which are processed into a few drugs (e.g. bliss) and distributed worldwide, usually to Triads in foreign markets. They are also involved in the distribution of Bioengineered Awakened Drugs.
Most of the production and distribution of BTL programs is controlled by the Triads. Originally BTL chips were produced mostly in the cities of Singapore and Hong Kong. While some were sold to users in Hong Kong, most of the BTL chips ended up in the European and North American markets. Now the production can be done anywhere but most of the distribution is done via the Matrix, often using the same sites that are used to distribute pirated media. One method of getting new customers is by "accidentally" sending a BTL to someone who is looking for cheap entertainment.
The Triads run a lucrative counterfeiting racket, especially when it comes to weapons, electronics, media, and the latest fashions. Often the Triads have a plan for a desktop forgery within hours after a new product is announced, before it hits the market. They are often able to sell their duplicates around the world before the corporation that designed it does. It's a similar situation when it comes to their pirating of new media releases.
A lot of the merchandise gets sent to China by the Triads, supplying the regional black market. They smuggle weapons, medical supplies, food, art, electronics, pornography, clothing, and other types of contraband throughout the world. Their partners at the other end of the smuggling pipeline are usually other Triads, but if there is no Triad in that location they will contact a local criminal outfit ahead of time and make arrangements. In addition to goods, the Triads also smuggle people, refugees fleeing conflict zones and immigrants looking for a better life.
When it comes to smuggling into war zones, the Triads are experts. They will bring in survival gear into the war zone and bring out; telesma, refugees, and valuable rarities. Often they will supply the combatants on both sides, with both vice-sources and combat equipment. There are incidents where both sides will implement a temporary cease-fire to permit the Triads to make a delivery in a hot zone.
Back home in China and Hong Kong, the Triads own the illegal gambling market. In greater China, the Triads control underground gambling venues, sports betting, online gambling, and so on. In North America, they are attempting to take market share from the established Yakuza and Mafia gambling operations. The gambling houses in North America run by the Triads usually focus on traditional Asian games such as mahjong. These clubs and casinos are often exclusive, discreet, and very high-stakes, and have extensive Matrix and magical security. On top of that they are usually inconspicuous, despite being in high-traffic areas.
In their home turf back in China and Hong Kong, the Triads own the prostitution market. All types of prostitution in greater China are controlled by the Triads from brothels to streetwalkers to high-class escorts. In North America, they are attempting to take market share from the established Mafia and Yakuza prostitution operations. Triad brothels in North America are like any other brothel, the only difference being that most of the employees were brought in illegally and may be paying off their debt to the smuggling syndicate. The clientele normally come from the working-class. They usually don't perform biosculpts on the "workers" or install cyberware on them, as it's not worth the cost due to the clientele. Because of their worldwide people trafficking network, these low-end brothels are pretty common around the world.
When it comes to computer crime their main activity is identity theft and creating false identities, which assists there people trafficking operations. The Triads also have Matrix-accessible gambling houses, but those are not as common. Though they can be lucrative, there is too much competition online so the Triads don't invest too much in that market. Some of the other types of Matrix crime the Triads are into include such things as running Matrix porn sites and performing all-out Matrix invasions. The Triads have become a major power in the Matrix.
Unlike many other crime syndicates, the Triads will actually provide protection to the businesses of those that make protection payments. If a street gang, another syndicate, or a corporation attempts to intimidate that business, there will be a response from the Triad. Which will involve overwhelming force or the use of their magic assets.
Triads in the Sixth WorldEdit
Empires of CrimeEdit
The Triad networks extends throughout mainland China, Australia, Southeast Asia, North America, and South America. In most cities where the Triads (or Tongs) have a presence, they normally control smuggling. They also have an extensive people smuggling network throughout Southeast Asia and China that smuggles refugees and illegal immigrants to Australia, Japan, and the UCAS. In North America, the Triads have turned the city of Montreal into the North American capital of Matrix crime. For the right price, they will even do "murder-for-hire".
Triads have a death grip on criminal activities inside China, and dominate the underworld in Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, and the United Kingdom. In Australia, the Triads are the oldest criminal syndicates. The Triads are the dominant criminal power in the region of Southeast Asia, with the Red Dragon Triad, the Smoke Circle Triad, the Black Chrysanthemum Triad, and Hai San extending their control over all of Southeast Asia. In Russia the Triads have been expanding from their beachhead in Vladivostok to other cities across Russia. They have a strong presence in Japan, Canada, and the United States. While they do have lodges in both mainland Europe and South America, they are minor players in those two regions.
Triads as Freedom FightersEdit
Among all the criminal organizations of murderers, smugglers, drug dealers, thieves, racketeers, and flesh traders, it's the Triads which are the ones who are most likely to stand against oppressive regimes. Partly it's because of their philosophy and how they see themselves, partly it's because of who is being oppressed, and partly it's because of criminal self-interest.
In the totalitarian state of Henan, Triads provide religious and dissident groups with shelter and support. They undermine the government and it's yearly economic plans by flooding the market with cheap copies of consumer products that have been sanctioned by the government. Though the Jo-poks and Yakuza are also participating, it's the Triads which pose the threat to the communists. Further south in totalitarian Vietnam, the Triads are supporting the separatist aspirations of the southern Vietnamese as well as those of the tribals of the Dega Alliance. The Cholon Triad sponsors operations supporting the agenda of the separatists.
Over in CalFree the Triads (and Tongs) were among the few who fought on the metahumans' side against the racist Japanese in the Bay Area and their anti-metahuman collaborators. The Triads played a major role in setting up the resistance and continued to maintain the resistance afterwards. They were the standard bearers, leading the fight against the Japanese. Providing the anti-occupation protesters and guerrillas with safehouses, and letting shadowrunners use those safehouses in their runs against the corporations. They were known to let operations hurt their business as long as it hurt the Japanese occupation.
For years the Triads supplied the resistance in the Bay Area with firearms and other supplies, which accelerated during the occupation. Though the Japanese succeeded in nearly wiping out the Worczek Family and the Seoulpa Rings struggled against the Japanese, the Triads waged a spectacular fight against the Japanese.
Triads at WarEdit
When it comes to waging war against their rivals, the Triads have no equal. The only mob war in which a great dragon actively participated was the Triad war between the Red Dragons and their rivals the Majestic Peacock Association, with the great eastern dragon Lung personally getting his hands dirty. Among all the mob wars of the Sixth Age so far, the gang war with the greatest scope was the one between the Red Dragons and their rivals the Yellow Lotus which was worldwide, ending in the near annihilation of the latter. So far the bloodiest mob war occurred in Hong Kong between the Smoke Circle Society and the Black Chrysanthemum, which resulted in the deaths of 10s of thousands.
The longest and most complex gang war has been the one between the Triads of the great dragon Lung and the Yakuza under the great dragon Ryumyo which has been going on for over five decades. The Red Dragons are the only crime syndicate to have its own military force, which has been used in a corporate war recently on the side of their corporate allies, Wuxing Inc. On top of that, it is possible that the Triads alone among the organized crime groups have access to nuclear technology and material (specifically the Red Dragons).
Nations with TriadsEdit
- Hong Kong, Canton Confederation, Taiwan, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Coastal Provinces, Kingdom of Shaanxi, Manchuria, Hainan, Ningxia, Guangxi, Shandong, Gansu,
- Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatran Alliance, Pattani Islamic Republic, Laos, Shan State, Kashin State, Singapore, Burma, Philippines,
- California Free State, United Canadian and American States, Salish-Shidhe Council, Republic of Québec, Caribbean League, Athabaskan Council, Denver,
The Rest of the World:
- Japan, Russia, Australia, Commonwealth of Turkestan, Constantinople, New Zealand,
List of TriadsEdit
Considering that in the Shadowrun world, the "White Lotus Society" is considered to be one of the Triads, it would means that the Triads in this world are approximately 800 years old. As the White Lotus Society actually dates back to the 13th century at the latest (see Trivia). Which would mean that the Triads of Shadowrun, ruled China twice. Once during the Ming Dynasty of the 14th-17th centuries (White Lotus Society) and again later during the Kuomintang regime of Chiang Kai-Shek in the 1920s-40s apart from the Japanese-occupied parts and later the Communist rebellion (Heaven & Earth Society). Which would make the Triads of Shadowrun, a force that vastly surpasses the Yakuza, the megacorporations, or the Black Lodge.
In the real world, the Triads are only one type of organized crime among the Chinese. Other forms of organized crime groups are the "Black Societies" (mainland China), the "Jhao Po" (Thailand), and the Tongs. Chinese crime syndicates vary from corporate-like syndicates (China) to quasi-street gangs (e.g. Wah Ching). They number in the 1000s of criminal groups with up to 30 million members in criminal societies in China alone. Based in Hong Kong is what is likely the wealthiest, largest, best organized, and most powerful of all the Chinese Triads and criminal organizations, the Sun Yee On with 50-60,000 members. Many in the media and the public in general use the word "Triads" to describe all Chinese organized crime, just like the word "Mafia" is often used to describe non-Italian organized crime.
Trillion Dollar EmpireEdit
These are criminal organizations that make $100s of billions annually and perhaps even over a $1 trillion annually. For example the manufacturing and global trade in counterfeit goods is worth hundreds of billions a year, and Chinese organized crime runs most of that business. They also dominate the illegal sports gambling industry (especially the global betting on soccer), likewise worth hundreds of billions.  Not to mention tens of billions in other illicit markets in China and Southeast Asia, including; drugs, prostitution, environmental crime (ivory, timber, animal parts, coal, etc), arms trafficking, credit card fraud, etc. Back in the 1990s when the Colombian cocaine cartels where in the news, it was the Chinese Triads who were the biggest drug traffickers as they made up to $200 billion annually from the Golden Triangle heroin trade, having controlled the heroin trade coming out of the Golden Triangle since the Vietnam War.
White Lotus SocietyEdit
The "White Lotus Society" is a real secret society which existed in China by the late 13th century in opposition against the Mongol invaders. It was the White Lotus Society which orchestrated the "Red Turban Rebellion" which overthrew the Mongols and restored Han Chinese rule to China. The Ming Dynasty that ruled China for three centuries was established by a member of the White Lotus Society. Centuries later when the Manchu barbarians conquered China, they became part of the resistance against the Manchus along with the original Triads (Heaven & Earth Society).
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Underworld Sourcebook p.59
- ↑ Vice p.68
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Emergence p.46
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Vice p.65
- ↑ Spy Games p.80
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Mob War! p.62
- ↑ Vice p.65-66
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Vice p.66
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Shadows of Asia p.170
- ↑ Shadowrun Fifth Edition Core Rulebook p.34
- ↑ Vice p.66-67
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Runner Havens p.43
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Vice p.69
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 Vice p.68
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Underworld Sourcebook p.57
- ↑ Runner Havens p.86-87
- ↑ Shadowrun Fifth Edition Core Rulebook p.34
- ↑ Runner Havens p.44
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 Vice p.70
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Underworld Sourcebook p.58
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Runner Havens p.45
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Underworld Sourcebook p.55
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 Underworld Sourcebook p.53
- ↑ Street Magic p.76
- ↑ Chrome Flesh p.38
- ↑ Ghost Cartels p.102
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Underworld Sourcebook p.56
- ↑ Vice p.71-73
- ↑ Runner Havens p.23
- ↑ 10 Mercs p.6-7
- ↑ Battle of Manhattan p.2-4
- ↑ Battle of Manhattan p.36-40
- ↑ Run Faster p.208
- ↑ Vice p.71-73
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Vice p.71
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 Vice p.72
- ↑ Vice p.71-73
- ↑ Vice p.71-73
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 Montreal 2074 p.13
- ↑ Lockdown p.48
- ↑ Target: Awakened Lands p38
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 Corporate Enclaves p.103
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 Seattle 2072 p.178
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 Target: Awakened Lands p.27
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.148
- ↑ Runner Havens p.45-47
- ↑ Ghost Cartels p.102-103
- ↑ Sixth World Almanac p.151
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Shadows of Asia p.43
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.51
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.57
- ↑ California Free State p.57
- ↑ California Free State p.63
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.50
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.51
- ↑ Mob War! p.61
- ↑ Runner Havens p.6
- ↑ Runner Havens p.86
- ↑ Vice p.73
- ↑ Mob War! p.62
- ↑ Shadows of Europe p.82
- ↑ Ghost Cartels p.107-110
- ↑ Storm Front p.48-49
- ↑ Storm Front p.60
- ↑ 10 Mercs p.6-7
- ↑ Battle of Manhattan p.2-4
- ↑ Battle of Manhattan p.36-40
- ↑ 68.0 68.1 68.2 68.3 Shadows of Asia p.27
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.46
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 Shadows of Asia p.161
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.39
- ↑ 72.0 72.1 Shadows of Asia p.157
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 Shadows of Asia p.154
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.153
- ↑ 75.0 75.1 Shadows of Asia p.148
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.151
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 Shadows of North America p.51
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 Shadowrun Third Edition p.317
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.122-123
- ↑ Montreal 2074 p.13
- ↑ Hard Targets p.124-125
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.35
- ↑ Dragons of the Sixth World p.116
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 Dragons of the Sixth World p.117
- ↑ Shadows of Europe p.196
- ↑ Shadows of Europe p.47
- ↑ Shadows of Europe p.89
- ↑ Corporate Enclaves p.103
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.130
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.205
- ↑ Cutting Aces p.52
- ↑ Runner Havens p.46
- ↑ Runner Havens p.47
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.32
- ↑ Runner Havens p.47-48
- ↑ Runner Havens p.46-47
- ↑ Shadowrun 2050 p.98
- ↑ Runner Havens p.20
- ↑ Sixth World Almanac p.30
- ↑ Ghost Cartels p.28
- ↑ Triads Online - Unpublished Material for Target:Matrix
- ↑ Vice pg.34
- ↑ Triads Online - Unpublished Material for Target:Matrix
- ↑ Vice p.74
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.98
- ↑ Battle of Manhattan p.13-14
- ↑ Vice p.73-74
- ↑ Target: UCAS p.42
- ↑ Lockdown p.48
- ↑ Shadows of North America p.122-123
- ↑ Run Faster p.40
- ↑ Hard Targets p.124-125
- ↑ Shadows of Latin America
- ↑ Shadows of Asia p.205
- ↑ Capitales des Ombres p.194-195 (French version of Runner Havens by Black Book Editions)
- Runner Havens, 43-48
- Shadowrun Third Edition, 317
- Shadows of Asia, 27, 32, 42-44, 130, 148, 151-154, 156-157, 161, 166, 205
- Shadows of North America, 90, 98, 122-123
- Target: Smuggler Havens, 54
- Vice, 34, 66-74
- Underworld Sourcebook, 53-59
- Dragons of the Sixth World, 115-117
- Corporate Enclaves, 103
- Shadows of Europe, 47, 89, 196
- Hard Targets, 124-125
- Target: UCAS, 42
- Run Faster, 208
- Shadowrun Fifth Edition Core Rulebook, 34
- Lockdown, 48
- Storm Front, 48-49, 60
- Ghost Cartels, 102-103, 107-110
- Seattle 2072, 178
- Cutting Aces, 52
- Target: Awakened Lands, 27, 36, 38
- London Sourcebook, 49
- Prime Runners, 68
- Montreal 2074, 8, 13
- Battle of Manhattan, 3-4, 13-14, 44-47
- Mob War!, 61-62
- Emergence, 46
- Chrome Flesh, 38
- Street Magic, 76
- Capitales des Ombres, 194-195 (French version of Runner Havens by Black Book Editions)
- Triads Online (Unpublished Material for Target:Matrix)
- Shadows of Latin America
- Ancient Files Mirror: Canton Confederation Draft (PDF) for Sixth World Almanac by Robert Derie aka Ancient History.
- Triads Online Unpublished Material for the Shadowrun Sourcebook; Target: Matrix.
- Wikipedia: Triads
- Stratfor: Organized Crime in China
- Research Gate: Black Societies and Triad-like Organised Crime in China
- United Nations: Transnational Organized Crime in East Asia and the Pacific
- U.S. Congress: Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations
- Havoscope: Black Market Crime in China
- Global Strategy: Chinese Organized Crime